Table 2.

Sounds produced by marine animals ranked by estimated source levels. Bold text identifies estimations made during this study.

speciessource level and type (dBrmsre: 1 µPa)reference
sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus)236, sonar clickMøhl et al. [14]
blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus)189, callŠirović et al. [15]
fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)189, callŠirović et al. [15]; Weirathmueller et al. [16]
bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)185, songTervo et al. [17]
Gulf corvina (Cynoscion othonopterus)177, callErisman & Rowell [18]
humpack whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)169, songAu et al. [19]
black drum (Pogonias cromis)165, callLocascio & Mann [20]
humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)158, callDunlop et al. [21]
Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus)143, callSchärer et al. [22]
killer whale (Orcinus orca)140, whistleMiller [23]
bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates)138, whistleFrankel et al. [24]
silver perch (Bairdiella chrysoura)135, callSprague & Luczkovich [25]
oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau)126, callBarimo & Fine [26]
Bocaccio rockfish (Sebastes paucispinis)113, callŠirović & Demer [27]