Table 1.

Summary of the full and final model for between-habitat cross-fostering investigating the effect of urbanization on telomere length (TL) in nestling great tits. Rearing habitat (urban or rural), habitat of origin (urban or rural) and sex were included as fixed factors, and hatching date and body condition (SMI) were included as covariates in the original model (n = 16 nest pairs, 156 nestlings). s.e. standard error, d.f. degrees of freedom.

dependent variablefull modelfinal model
source of variationestimate (s.e.)Fd.f.p-valueestimate (s.e.)Fd.f.p-value
telomere length (TL)intercept1.06 (0.985)−0.098 (0.041)
rearing habitat (urban)−2.646 (1.285)4.271, 137.440.04−0.10 (0.048)4.601, 150.820.033
habitat of origin (urban)0.013 (0.085)0.00031, 28.750.98
sex (female)−0.082 (0.062)1.081, 131.720.29
hatching date−0.012 (0.015)0.0151, 31.480.90
SMI−0.024 (0.021)0.0681, 131.650.79
rearing habitat × habitat of origin−0.029 (0.098)0.0891, 143.900.79
rearing habitat × sex0.066 (0.097)0.471, 136.960.49
rearing habitat × hatching date0.029 (0.018)2.591, 133.380.10
rearing habitat × SMI0.057 (0.031)3.3981, 145.900.067
random factorsχ2
 nest of rearing0.001.00
 nest of origin8.900.003