Table 1.

Defensive strike performance by Pantherophis obsoletus and several vipers. Our data (top three) are means ± s.e.m. (covariate-adjusted mean in parentheses). Other data are means except for medians of best-performance values from five Bothrops species [11]; emdashes indicate no data. Trimeresurus albolabris values are composite means from male and female means [2].

speciesacceleration (ms–2)velocity (ms–1)distance (cm)duration (ms)
Pantherophis obsoletus190 ± 11.5 (191)2.67 ± 0.1 (2.7)16.7 ± 1.1 (17)74 ± 2 (75)
Agkistrodon piscivorus173 ± 14.1 (175)2.98 ± 0.1 (3.1)13.6 ± 1.4 (14)66 ± 5 (66)
Crotalus atrox169 ± 13.4 (157)2.95 ± 0.1 (2.7)12.7 ± 1.1 (11)a71 ± 2 (69)
Bitis arietans [10]722.62187
Bothrops sp. [11]1.2312.681
Gloydius shedaoensis [4]1.3213
Trimeresurus albolabris [2]62.11.521285
  • aIndicate pairwise significant differences between P. obsoletus and each viper.