Table 1.

Differences in flight kinematics of bumble-bees hovering at capture (3250 m) and maximum flight (7500–9200 m) altitudes. Values are means ± 1 s.d. p-values come from paired, two-sided t-tests with significant values in italic based on sequential Bonferroni-adjusted cutoffs with overall α = 0.05.

3250 mmaximum altitudechange (95% CI)t (d.f.)p-value
φmin (°)−84.4 ± 2.9−90.8 ± 3.56.3 (−2.0,10.7)3.78 (5)0.0130a
φmax (°)45.0 ± 2.858.9 ± 5.113.9 (8.1, 19.6)6.24 (5)0.0015a
φmean (°)−19.7 ± 2.1−15.9 ± 2.83.7 (0.1, 7.4)2.66 (5)0.0452
Φ (°)129.5 ± 3.9149.7 ± 6.620.2 (13.2, 27.3)7.37 (5)<0.001a
n (Hz)172.2 ± 15.1171.3 ± 8.6−0.9 (−9.8, 7.9)−0.29 (4)0.7878
ω (rad s−1)389.2 ± 35.2450.2 ± 36.762.9 (50.8, 75.0)14.39 (4)<0.001
  • aSignificant at the α = 0.05 level for two-sided paired Wilcoxon signed-rank tests.