Table 1.

Parameter estimates for mixed models comparing growth of toads as a function of midparent distance from the invasion front, Timber Creek. Dependent variables are log-transformed ‘days to metamorphosis’ and log-transformed ‘size at metamorphosis’ for tadpole growth, and final mass (×100) for juvenile growth. The effect of midparent distance was significant in all cases.

model and parameterestimatestandard error
tadpole growth
fixed effect
 midparent distance−1.55 × 10−46.40 × 10−5
variance due to random effects
 cohort0.128
 dam within cohort0.029
 residual0.082
juvenile growth
fixed effects
 midparent distance−0.0130.004
 initial weight2.6570.308
variance due to random effects
 cohort776.74
 dam within cohort13.00
 residual288.66