Stress associated with group living in a long-lived bird

Nuria Selva, Ainara Cortés-Avizanda, Guillermo Blanco, Thomas Mueller, Bernd Heinrich, José A. Donázar

ARTICLE

Biol. Lett. 7, 608–610 (23 August 2011; published online February 9 2011). (doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.1204)

After careful examination, there is a need to question the validity of the results conducted by Jesús A. Lemus in the above paper, published in Biology Letters. Although the field and statistical procedures are correct, we have not been able to clarify in which external laboratories Dr Lemus conducted the hormonal and parasite analysis. Given the ephemeral nature of the material used (faeces), we are unable to repeat the analysis with the same samples employed in the original study. Therefore, we wish to retract the article. We sincerely apologize for any inconvenience to the readers of Biology Letters.

Nuria Selva

Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Mickiewicza 33, 31120 Kraków, Poland

e-mail: nuriselva{at}gmail.com

Ainara Cortés-Avizanda

Estación Biológica de Doñana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientı́ficas, Américo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain

e-mail: ainara{at}ebd.csic.es

Guillermo Blanco

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientı́ficas, J. Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain

e-mail: gublanco{at}hotmail.com

Thomas Mueller

Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA

e-mail: muellert{at}gmail.com

Benrd Heinrich

Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05465, USA

e-mail: bheinric{at}uvm.edu

José A. Donázar

Estación Biológica de Doñana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientı́ficas, Américo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain

e-mail: donazar{at}ebd.csic.es