In a warming climate, higher temperatures are likely to modulate positively or negatively the effect of other environmental factors on biota, although such interactions are poorly documented. Here, we explore under controlled conditions the combined effects of two common stressors in freshwater ecosystems, higher temperature and sediment load, on the embryonic development of arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.). In the warm treatment, embryos had a lower survival, a longer incubation period and a smaller body size with a bigger yolk sac volume. Our data show a significant interaction between temperature and sediment load with temperature increasing dramatically the negative effects of sediment load on fitness-related traits. In the climate change context, these findings highlight the importance of taking into account different thermal scenarios when examining the effect of environmental or anthropogenic stressors.
Electronic supplementary material is available online at https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3593561.
- Received September 15, 2016.
- Accepted November 29, 2016.
- © 2016 The Author(s)
Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.