ASCAT detected backscatter difference (dB), southern Yamal Peninsula 10 November 2013. Pink line borders severely iced pasture area; black arrow indicates reindeer herders' southward migration. (a) AIRS daily total precipitable water from (b–c) 6–7 November 2006 and (d–f) 8–10 November 2013 and 925 hPa temperature (g–i) from 8–10 November 2013 for the BKS region. White indicates missing data and black outlines the coasts.
Anomalous precipitation (mm) patterns 6–7 November 2006 (left column) and 6–7 November 2013 (right column). Anomalies are to the respective monthly averages (a). Moisture transport (streamline) and convergence of moisture transport (shading: 10−7 s−1) in the 1000–850 hPa level in 2006 and 2013 (b). Moisture convergence is overall in reasonable agreement with precipitation, suggesting that convergence of increased moisture is primarily responsible for precipitation.