(a) Schematic of SIS and SIR models. (b,c) Effects of provisioning (ρ) on host fecundity (b0), mortality (μ), contact (α), transmissibility (δ), and disease-induced mortality (ν). Line width depicts how strongly provisioning affects immune defence (θδν values shown in legend).
Effects of provisioning on (a) pathogen invasion success (R0) and (b) equilibrium SIS and SIR prevalence. Line widths depict effects of provisioning on immunity as described in figure 1, and the vertical arrow indicates an increasingly saturating effect on immunity. The grey line shows the pathogen invasion threshold, R0 = 1. R0 is displayed on a log scale.
Potential effects of provisioning on parameters reflecting host demography, contact behaviour, and immune defence and the predicted effect on R0. (Shading indicates assumptions used in the modelling framework.)